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The most useful introduction to diagnostic medicine in the modern era is used for fertility evaluations, pregnancy care and diagnosis of disorders of female reproductive organs.

Ultrasonography is a technology in which sound waves of very high frequency (beyond hearing) are passed through transducer into the body. These waves are reflected back from the tissues in different magnitude depending on their texture forming a sketch on the screen. Variations in densities of the tissues identify them from each other. The fluid does not reflect any sound wave so appears dark and the bone has maximum density, so appears white on the screen. The other tissues are in between. Normal shape and the texture of the organs with normal walls and contents are reassuring. If there are abnormalities, of shape or structures, those are identified and diagnosed, which helps in their proper management.

Ultrasound has established itself as clinical tool for the gynecologist that helps in diagnosis for the convenience of the doctor and the patient who is treated without the lapse of time.

Ultrasound Applications in Women. Ultrasound is extensively used in Gynecology. In pregnant women it is used for confirmation of pregnancy, detection of abnormalities or risks to pregnancy, placenta and its abnormalities, causes of bleeding if it occurs, monitoring the growth of fetus, or fetal surveillance to resort to. It is a great tool of help for today’s obstetrician and the perinatologist.

In gynecology ultrasound detects the abnormalities of uterus, ovaries and the pelvis like Fibroids, Ovarian cysts, PID, hydatidiform mole, adenomyosis, and endometriosis.

In fertility practice it not only helps to detect problems but also is essentially needed for the management of the case. The following important evaluations can be done with Ultrasonography:

  • Structure of the uterus and any abnormalities are visualized. Fibroids and endometriosis are associated with infertility. Locations and size of fibroids carefully recorded. Sparsely distributed hyper echoic spots in the myometrium indicate Adenomyosis.
  • Texture and the thickness of the uterine Endometrium influenced by the ovarian hormones. It shows the effect of the hormones and gives an idea of their amount and nature. These are related to the day of the ovarian cycle. A fair degree of hormonal status of the woman can be assessed by these observations.
  • The size and structure of both the ovaries and their abnormalities like the ovarian cysts are identified.
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